Pediatric Retinal Diseases and Treatments



Pediatric Retinal diseases include a wide range of conditions that affect the retina in children, causing damage to the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are crucial to prevent the risk of vision loss and promote healthy visual development.


Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP):

  • Overview: ROP mainly affects the vision of premature babies, especially if the baby is born before 31 weeks of pregnancy. The abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina can cause blindness in the baby.
  • Symptoms: Most of the symptoms are very difficult to detect in the early stages and in the advanced stages it can lead to poor vision or blindness.
  • Diagnosis: If the baby is born prematurely, use regular retinal examinations and indirect ophthalmoscopy.
  • Treatment: Retinal treatment involves the use of laser therapy or cryotherapy which are proven to be helpful in stopping the abnormal blood vessel growth. In severe cases, scleral buckle surgery or vitrectomy may prove necessary.

Congenital Retinal Disorders:

  • Overview: Congenital retinal disorders include several inherited conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis, and congenital stationary night blindness.
  • Symptoms: Peripheral vision loss, night blindness, or severe vision loss from birth.
  • Diagnosis: Electroretinography (ERG), genetic testing, and comprehensive eye exam.
  • Treatment: While there is no cure many congenital retinal disorders, low vision aids, vitamin A supplementation , and gene therapy may help manage symptoms.

Juvenile Retinoschisis:

  • Overview: A genetic disorder that causes the division of retinal layers, it mainly affects children.
  • Symptoms: Peripheral vision loss, decreased central vision, and difficulty in reading.
  • Diagnosis: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ERG.
  • Treatment: Currently, there is no specific treatment for it but regular monitoring and proper lifestyle can help in managing the vision symptoms.

Coats’ Disease:

  • Overview: A rare condition in which abnormal blood vessels develop in the retina, causing retinal detachment and vision loss.
  • Symptoms: Vision loss, leukocoria (white pupil), and strabismus (squinting).
  • Diagnosis: Fluorescein angiography, fundus examination, and OCT.
  • Treatment: It is primarily caused by abnormal blood vessels and laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy, or anti-VEGF injections are used to reduce them. Surgery is also an option for advanced cases as needed.

Retinal Detachment:

  • Overview: It may be primarily due to predisposing conditions like trauma, high myopia or ROP.
  • Symptoms: Floaters, flashes of light, and sudden vision loss.
  • Diagnosis: Clinical tests, ultrasound and OCT.
  • Treatment: It becomes important to use surgical intervention (scleral buckle, vitrectomy) which helps to reattach the retina and preserve vision.


Indirect Ophthalmoscopy: This procedure is used for a detailed examination of the retina, especially for ROP screening of premature infants.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): OCT provides cross-sectional images of the retina, which are useful in diagnosing conditions such as Coats disease and retinoschisis.

Fluorescein Angiography: Fluorescein angiography is used to visualise the blood vessels in the retina, which is essential for diagnosing vascular disorders such as Coats disease.

Electroretinography (ERG): This helps in measuring the electrical responses of retinal cells, which in turn helps in diagnosing congenital retinal disorders.


Laser therapy: Laser therapy is used to stop abnormal blood vessel growth in Coats disease and ROP.

Cryotherapy: This is an alternative to laser therapy that has been shown to be successful in treating abnormal retinal blood vessels.

Scleral buckle surgery: This procedure involves indenting the wall of the eye and reattaching the retina in retinal detachment cases.

Vitrectomy: Vitrectomy is used to surgically remove the vitreous gel in retinal detachment and advanced ROP cases.

Anti-VEGF injection: This injection is used to reduce abnormal blood vessel growth in conditions like ROP and Coats disease.

Gene therapy: This is emerging as a potential treatment for some congenital retinal disorders and is undergoing research and clinical trials.


At Iris Eye Care Hospital, you will find a team of qualified eye experts who are not only skilled in pediatric retinal treatments but also provide advanced care to the unique needs of children. Dr. Sonali Raj Singh, a Gold Medalist Expert in Retina Treatment in Varanasi, utilizes all the latest methodology and fruitful techniques to manage and treat various retinal conditions in children.

To ensure normal visual development among children, it is beneficial to detect and treat retinal diseases in a timely manner. Regular eye exams, especially for high-risk infants and children, play a most crucial role in identifying these conditions early.



Retinal diseases are the problems associated to retina that can significantly impair vision and lead to blindness.

There are 5 common types of Retinal Diseases as follows:

  1. Retinal Detachment
  2. Diabetic Retinopathy
  3. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
  4. Retinitis Pigmentosa
  5. Macular Hole

There are three major treatment options:

  • Surgical Procedures
  • Pharmacological Treatments
  • Lifestyle Changes & Management

For detail please read this article.

Retinal diseases are more common in adults, especially older ones. Although its treatments are available, some of the retinal diseases are still not being cured. Sometimes it may occur with children, but its expectancy is less.

It’s not 100% curable because most of the retinal diseases are still in the stage of experimental stage.

Yes, of course, we have the latest technology with the latest devices, through which retinal treatment can be performed with complete care.


Hospital’s Name: Iris Eye Care Hospital Varanasi
Address: Sigra – Mahmoorganj Rd, Opposite Park No 1, Sant Raghuvar Nagar, Sigra, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221010
Contact Number: +91-8299611744; +91-9557840121
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